With the reason of increasing income, thousand hectares of the rain forest has exploited for plantation and mining area. Many plant species became endangered. Deforestation in Indonesia contributes to the biodiversity distinction. Click here to find some data related to deforestation.
Today, many plant species are on the list of endangered species. In the past, easily we can found them in nature. They were endemic in some spots of the Indonesian forest.
Here is the list of endangered plant species in Indonesia:
- Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri)
- Pelahlar (Dipterocarpus littoralis)
- Damar (Agathis dammara)
- Logan (Dipterocarpus cinereus)
- Resak Banten (Vatica bantamensis)
- Resak Brebes (Vatica javanica ssp. Javanica)
- Tengkawang (Shorea pinanga)
- Damar Mata Kucing (Shorea javanica)
- Kapur (Dryobalanops sumatrensis)
- Mersawa (Anisoptera costata)
- Cendana (Santalum album)
- Jelutung (Dyera sp)
- Tembesu (Fagraea fragrans)
- Saninten (Castanopsis argentea)
- Durian Daun (Durio oxleyanus)
- Durian burung (Durio graveolens)
- Keledang (Artocarpus lanceifolius)
- Kemayau (Dacryodes rostrata)
- White mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)
- Rukem (Flacourta rukam)
- Anggrek Tebu (Grammatophyllum speciosum)
- Giant Padma (Rafflesia arnoldii)
- Javanese Edelweiss (Anaphalis javanica)
- Daun payung (Johannesteijsmannia altifrons)
- Tropical Pitcher (Nephentes sp.)
- Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum)
- Black Orchid (Coelogyne pandurata)
- Sarang Burung (Myrmecodia Pendans)
1. Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri)
Known as Ironwood, and become one of the best wood in the world. Ulin is a native tree from Kalimantan. Ulin is a member of Dipterocarpaceae and has slow growth. Massive exploitation causing Ulin now become endangered.
2. Pelahlar (Dipterocarpus littoralis)
Become number one of the rarest tree in Indonesia. Pelahlar is a member of Dipterocarpaceae and endemically grown only in the Nusa kambangan island in central Java province.
Commercially known as Meranti Jawa. The conservation status is critically endangered according to the International Union for conservation (IUCN). In 2014, only 34 trees found in their habitat. Popular wood as the material for the traditional boats.
3. Damar (Agathis dammara)
Damar is one Indonesian native species. Originally grown in Sulawesi and Maluku. Commercially people trade the sap resin, called Copal. Damar is member of Araucariaceae. The wood also has commercial value. The best condition for growing Damar is in the low land.
4. Logan (Dipterocarpus cinereus)
Endemically grew only in central Tapanuli, North Sumatra Province. Peoples knew Logan wood as good material for house and boat construction. A lot of illegal logging activities causing Logan to become endangered. Today probably only 500 trees remain in nature.
5. Resak Banten (Vatica bantamensis)
Kokoleceran is the local name of Resak Banten. Became a local identity of the Banten Province. This species is endemically only found in Ujung Kulon national park. Besides the exploitation, the endangered status also causing by Arenga obtusifolia, the invasive species in the conservation area.
6. Resak Brebes (Vatica javanica ssp. Javanica)
Naturally found in the rain forest surrounding the Salem area, the border area of West Java and Central Java province. As same as the other species from Diptheraceae, peoples use Resak wood for house material
7. Tengkawang (Shorea pinanga)
The product was trade as Tengkawang oil for industrial raw material. Tengkawang also known as Borneo tallow nut. Mostly found in Kalimantan and Sumatra. Illegal logging and land conversion is the reason why Tengkawang becomes endangered.
8. Damar Mata Kucing (Shorea javanica)
Probably it species already domesticated in the Bukit Barisan national park since the 19th century. One of the best Indonesian sap resin product comes from trees which are grown in West Lampung province.
9. Kapur (Dryobalanops sumatrensis)
The distribution of this species is in Sumatra and Kalimantan. One of species which produce Indonesian Kapur/camphor. It is uses as perfumes ingredients.
10. Mersawa (Anisoptera costata)
The natural world distribution of its species is in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, Malayan peninsula. Mersawa is also known as Ki Tenjo, is one of Dipterocarpaceae. High-quality wood is causing its species was exploited and today become endangered.
11. Cendana (Santalum album)
Cendana becomes the top three for the most expensive wood in the world. The nice fragrance from the wood can retain for decades. The distribution in Indonesia is only found in East Nusa Tenggara. Member of Santalaceae. And has a common English name, Sandalwood.
12. Jelutung (Dyera sp)
The sap of it species becomes one of material for bubble gum. Natively grown in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Previously, Indonesia is the biggest exporter of the Jelutong sap, but because of the deforestation in Indonesia, both for Plantation or wildfires, the population is decreasing significantly.
13. Tembesu (Fagraea fragrans)
The tree has slow growth. and need more than 20 years growing before harvested. Illegal logging and deforestation in Indonesia causing the population decreasing become faster.
14. Saninten (Castanopsis argentea)
The fruit is delicious and becomes a favorite for the animals such as monkeys and squirrels. Also known as cheese nut and the nut is become commercial for a snack. Has slow-growing and only once a year producing fruit. Fruit season is usually from January to April.
15. Durian daun (Durio oxleyanus)
As same as other Durian species, Durian Daun has delicious fruit. The distribution mostly in Kalimantan. Because less popular than commercial durian species (Durio zibethinus), the Durian Daun was not grown massively and only grew wild in the forest. Deforestation accelerates its species to become endangered
16. Durian burung (Durio graveolens)
Perennial and one of Malvaceae members. Durian Burung also less popular compared to the commercial species. The trees were growing wild in the Kalimantan forest.
17. Keledang (Artocarpus lanceifolius)
Its species is an evergreen perennial tree which part of Moraceae. Mature Keledang fruit is sweet and aromatic. Grows wild in Kalimantan forest
18. Kemayau (Dacryodes rostrata)
Native fruit from Kalimantan forest. Its fruit is not popular and only found grows wild. and because of massive deforestation in Kalimantan, the population decreasing time by time.
19. White mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)
Comparing to common mangosteen, white mangosteen is crunchier and sweeter. Mostly found in West Lombok island. Instead of purple, the exocarp color of this species is white, and it will turn to deep purple when the fruit is mature.
20. Rukem (Flacourta rukam)
Previously Rukem is common fruit and easy to found. But because of not cultivated and only grows wild, Rukem becomes rare.
21. Anggrek tebu (Grammatophyllum speciosum)
Anggrek Tebu is the biggest orchid in the world. Endemically grew wild in the Indonesian rain forest. Member of Orchidaceae. The distribution is in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi. It also reported in Philippines and some pacific countries.
22. Giant Padma (Rafflesia arnoldii)
The scientific name is related to Sir Stamford Raffles, a British administrator for East India territory (old name of Indonesia during the colonization era). First discovered in southern part of Sumatra, which now become Bukit Barisan Nasional Park
23. Javanese Edelweiss (Anaphalis javanica)
Popular for every people who love to hike the mountain with more than 2500 meters above sea level in elevation. It is also called the eternal flower because the flower is durable even stored for many years. But nowadays, the plants disappeared in some mountains.
24. Daun payung (Johannesteijsmannia altifrons)
Today is difficult to find it species in the nature. The distribution of this species is in Sumatra, and Kalimantan.
25. Tropical Pitcher (Nephentes sp.)
Most of the species are distributed in the wet rain forest in Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan. Because of the commercial value, people do massive exploitation. Some hiker believes that when they find the Nephentes, it means they already In the middle of nowhere. It because of very difficult to find in the wild.
26. Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum)
Become one of national identity, Titan arum was very popular. When blooming, the flower will produce a smell like a corpse to attract the insect to pollinate the flower. When fully blooming, the flower can reach more than 3 meters in height.
27. Black Orchid (Coelogyne pandurata)
The flower is an identity for East Kalimantan province. Growing wild in the primer rain forest in Sumatra and Kalimantan. The “black” name comes from the color of the labellum. And the rest had bright green color. Deforestation in Indonesia causing the population to decrease significantly. Nowadays the number of plants mostly in the collector’s house instead of in the wild.
28. Ant nest plant (Myrmecodia Pendans)
The epiphyte plant from Papua. Found mostly in the highland forest, in 1100-2500 meters ASL. It Species is a member of the Rubiaceae family and is known as an herbal medicine for serious diseases such as cancer. Peoples usually consume it as tea.
- Kemen G Austin, Amanda Schwantes, Yaofeng Gu, Prasad S Kasibhatla. 2019. What Causes Deforestation in Indonesia?. IOP Publishing Ltd. Environmental Research Letters, Volume 14, Number 2
always love to learn from nature. Passionate on studying plants in some aspects: the DNA, Identification, propagation, and their uses