Edible mushrooms in Indonesia is abundant. Mushroom or Jamur in the Indonesian language is a nutrient-rich food. High humidity is an important requirement for mushrooms to grow optimally. That’s why Indonesia as a tropical country is part of the hotspot for tropical mushroom diversity. There are many wild mushrooms that are commonly known as edible and peoples use them as food.
In Fact, from all commercially cultivated mushrooms available in the market, unfortunately only some of them which natively from Indonesia. Imported mushrooms number are bigger compared to Indonesian native mushrooms. Most edible mushrooms in Indonesia is still growing wild and people collecting them from nature during the mushroom season.
Mushroom is nutrient-rich food
Mushrooms are nutrient-rich food. They are famous for having a delicious and savoury taste. Mushrooms are one of the most popular food around the world. Mushrooms have a long history as food. 13.000 years ago, Chilean civilization was familiar with using mushrooms as their food. The information was found in their archaeological sites.
Mushroom Business Is Become Popular
Among countries has different cultures in the mushrooms utilization as a food. This is affecting the progress in the cultivation and commercialization of edible mushrooms. China and Japan are the 2 most advanced Asian countries in mushrooms commercialization.
For the last 10 years, Indonesia has good progress. There are some areas, nowadays popular as mushroom producers. But, the amount of species is still in a few numbers. If compared to total edible mushrooms species availability, they are just a few numbers.
Below is the list of edible mushrooms in Indonesia.
You can see the list of edible mushrooms below. The list is based on cultivated and wild mushrooms. This is for the convenience of the readers. Firstly, edible mushrooms that cultivate and popular as food mushrooms, and trade as vegetables in both modern and traditional markets. secondly, are edible wild mushrooms that are already popular as edible mushrooms not cultivated yet.
Last but not least, wild edible mushrooms in Indonesia mostly have not been studied well. The information available is still limited. The list below was made based on personal experience as a food forager practicioner, and from group discussion among mushroom hunters in Indonesia.
10 cultivated mushrooms which easily found in Indonesian market
There are some commonly cultivated mushrooms in Indonesia. Some of them cultivate but not in Indonesia. Here is the list of 10 common mushrooms which you easily find in the market. Some of them are local mushroom and popular as locally cultivated mushroom and the rest is import mushrooms.
Jamur Tiram (Pleurotus sp)
Jamur Tiram/Oyster mushroom is the most popular edible mushroom in Indonesia. Widely used as food almost in all regions. The common species which commonly cultivated was the white Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Although there are other species, they are less popular. In general, Oyster mushrooms cultivation has simple techniques, cheap, and easy-to-obtain raw materials. In addition, the cultivation process can also be carried out throughout the year.
Jamur kuping (Auricularia sp)
Jamur Kuping (Auricularia sp) is one of the cosmopolitan mushrooms (you can find it anywhere). It is very easy to grow in humid conditions. Starting from the lowlands to the highlands. Both in the forest and in the backyard. They require high humidity for optimal growth.
Currently, Jamur Kuping is one of the most common cultivated mushrooms in Indonesia. The growth of Jamur Kuping cultivation in Indonesia as a business is increasing rapidly. So that currently, Jamur Kuping cultivation is very widespread in many regions.
Jamur merang (Vorvariella volvacea)
Jamur Merang (Vorvariella volvacea) is an edible mushroom that is widely cultivated by farmers in the lowlands. Farmers cultivate them in a special room called Kumbung to maintain humidity, sanitation, and light exposure. Generally, farmers use cotton waste and paddy straws as growth media. However, currently, mushroom farmers have also started using other raw materials. The raw material for growth media generally has a high cellulose content. Jamur Merang is very easy to find in vegetable markets in Indonesia.
Jamur kancing (Agaricus bisporus)
Agaricus bisporus is a popular edible mushroom in Indonesia. It is well-known as a food mushroom and has become a commodity that is widely cultivated by mushroom farmers. Jamur Kancing cultivation in the tropics requires certain conditions.
The temperature ranges from 24-30oC with 90-100% humidity. This mushroom is sold fresh and canned. Generally, Jamur Kancing is used in various food recipes. This species also has another commercial name for the older phase. Their older stage is sold as Portobello Mushroom.
Jamur shimeji (Hypsizygus tessellatus)
Shimeji mushroom (Hypsizygus tessellatus) is also popular as a Japanese mushroom. Currently, Shiimeji is one of the imported mushrooms in Indonesia. There are two kinds. White Shimeji and Brown Shimeji. To distinguish them, you can see the colour of their caps. Shimeji has a distinctive aroma, a bit unpleasant, but the aroma will disappear after being cooked. Shimeji is always available in the modern market.
Jamur Enoki (Flammulina velutipes)
Enoki is cultivated but still imported. Enoki is easy to recognize because of its shape. Their stipe is slim and the cap (pileus) is not too big. Enoki is Popular in Japan, China, and Korea. Enoki is one of the cultivated mushrooms in these three countries. However, Japan was the first country which popularizes Enoki as a commodity. Currently, Enoki is popular in many countries, including Indonesia. In almost all modern markets in Indonesia, you can easily find it.
Shiitake (Lentinula edodes)
The name of Shiitake comes from Shii (a type of tree in Japan) and take (mushroom). So the literal meaning is Shii tree mushroom. Initially, wild Shiitake is often found growing on Shii wood. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is one of the most popular mushrooms in China and Japan. This species is popular in the history of Chinese medicine. Nowadays, Shiitake is still importing and become one of the favourite mushrooms in the modern markets in Indonesia.
King Oyster (Pleurotus eryngii)
The king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) is in the same genera as the white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). But the appearance is different. King Oyster has a larger sporocarp. Under optimal conditions, it can reach a size of up to 15 cm. The “stipe” is large and soft in texture, while the “cap” is cream to brown in colour. The United States is the leading country in the cultivation of this species. But today, this species is cultivated in many countries. While in Indonesia, King Oyster mushroom is still imported.
Jamur salju/Jamur Kuping putih (Tremella fuciformis)
Jamur Salju (Tremella fuciformis) is also popular as a mushroom with many benefits in some countries for thousands of years. In China, Jamur Salju is often used as a soup, as a medicine, and as an ingredient for facial treatments. Currently, you can find them in some modern markets. Distributors import them. Some Chinese and Japanese restaurants in Indonesia, also use Jamur Salju in their menu.
Porcini (Boletus edulis)
Porcini (Boletus edulis) is quite popular in the Indonesian mushroom market. This species is widespread in Europe, Asia and North America. In Italy, Porcini has the title of the king of mushrooms. It is because they are tastier than other mushrooms. Although not as famous as other mushrooms, nowadays Porcini is imported and available in several modern markets in Indonesia.
39 Wild edible mushrooms in Indonesia
Wild edible mushroom is abundance in Indonesia. But unfortunately, only a few detailed study available. Actually, when we talking about the potential of Indonesian mushrooms, it is always interesting. Some of them have a high price, such as Pelawan mushrooms. From the nutrition aspects, they are also nutritious food as well.
Jamur kancing liar (Agaricus sp)
You can find wild Agaricus mushrooms in the grassland during the rainy season. Indonesia has several Agaricus species, but not all of them are edible. There are common characteristics to distinguish them. If there are yellow spots on the pileus and the stipe, and it smells like fermented (alcoholic), then the Agaricus is not edible.
However, if the pileus and stipe are clean and have a fresh aroma, then it is edible. The gills of wild edible Agaricus also has with yellowish colour in the early stage. It will turn to light brown/pinkish. And finally turns to brown or dark brown when it’s in the late phase.
Jamur Jambu (Armillaria sp)
Armillaria sp commonly grows in the rainforests mountain. Has a similar aroma to water apple. They grow on trees as a parasite. Another species, Armillaria mellea, is a macroscopic multicellular mushroom that becomes a pathogen for some plants. They grow parasitically and cause root rot.
Some information mention that Armillaria mellea is edible and know as Jamur Madu. However, you have to be careful because the appearance of this mushroom is similar to the poisonous Galerina sp. There is not much detailed information about Armillaria mushrooms, so make sure that you have enough knowledge to identify them.
Jamur kuping merah (Auricularia auricula)
The genera of Auricularia is the only mushroom you can see in Indische Groenten book. Auricularia auricula is easy to find anywhere. As long as has high humidity and the right material to as growth media. They grow on the decomposed wood. Their fruit bodies tend to be wide and thick. Sundanese people named it Lember. There is an activity which is called Ngalember. The term for people who go to the forest to harvesting mushrooms.
The characteristics of this species are that the size is medium. The shape tends to be rounded and convex. Their growth is not in clusters. It will grow in rows on the substrate. The colour tends to be dark reddish-brown. But it still belongs to Jamur Kuping in Indonesia
Auricularia delicata is the most easily found among other Auricularia. Especially in the Indonesian rain forest. They grow on the wood surface in the forest base. They will grow well in is the ground area that is not exposed directly to the sunlight. Under optimal conditions, their size can reach 8-10 centimetres in diameter. The texture is chewy and the colour is light brown.
Lember Bodas (Auricularia delicata f. alba)
Auricularia delicata f. alba Is still the same species as Auricularia delicata, but this forma has lighter colour. The color even tends to be white. In nature, these two kinds of mushrooms, are often found growing side by side.
Jamur kuping hitam (Auricularia polytricha)
Auricularia polytricha is species which has darker in colour than other Auricularia. They grow in clusters, and their shape tends to be convexly rounded. Their colour is dark brown or even tends to be black colour.
This species is one of wild Auricularia, but not popular yet. There is no information about their cultivation. Grows tightly attached to a weathered wood substrate. The texture is chewy. Their colour is more to whitish brown.
Jamur roti/Jamur tahu (Calvatia sp)
The local name for this species is Jamur Roti or Jamur Tahu. The name comes from the texture. Calvatia spp texture is similar to the bread (Roti). While the name of the Jamur Tahu (Tofu mushroom) comes from the colour of their flesh which is white like tofu. You can still find them at the end of the rainy season when the other mushrooms are getting difficult to find.
Cerioporus sp. Is a species that is rather difficult to find. Cerioporus sp has a plain taste. It has a high water content in its thick flesh. The bottom of the pileus is porous. Under optimal conditions, they will grow in large groups.
Jamur Nangka (Cantharellus sp)
Cantharellus sp has a bright colour. usually grows in the forest base. They grow as ectomycorrhizae with Damar tree (Shorea javanica). So it is not surprising when they are often found in Krui, West Lampung. Krui is one of the Damar tree planting areas. Local peoples harvest the mushroom and use them as food.
The shape of Cookeina spp is unique and the have attractive color. They will easily recognize when you see them. Their shape is like a bowl with a stem. Their color is reddish-orange. They usually grow on the wood as the substrates. Commonly you will see them on the forest floor with moderately shaded.
Coprinopsis sp is easily found in the decomposed rice straws pile in the paddy field. Especially after harvesting time, during the rainy season. If we are lucky, just by dismantling the rice straws pile, we will harvest a lot in the right phase. It was savoury and was one of my favourite mushrooms during my childhood.
Dacryopinax sp Is one of the tiny wood mushrooms. Their color is yellowish with a jelly texture. Usually grows easily on the surface of the wood. However, even though this mushroom is edible, it is currently rarely used. It is because of their small size. In some areas, people use Dacryopinax sp as a colouring ingredient for the soups.
Flavolaschia manipularis has bright white color. They are one of the Indonesian bioluminescence mushrooms. The mushrooms can emit light at the night. Peoples in Central Kalimantan named it as Kulat Kumala Suang. In addition, their texture is slightly close to jelly with a bland taste.
This edible wild mushroom has white color. Grows on the wood that has begun to decompose. Generally, grow in the large groups. Easier to find them in the wet forests. They will grow optimal in the shaded areas. Even though it’s edible, when they are in the late phase, the texture is pretty tough. However, when you find it is too late, you can still use it as a food flavouring, as mushroom broth.
Fistulina hepatica is one of the favorite edible wild mushrooms for all mushroom hunters. They are famous because of their texture and colour, which are similar to fresh meat. They have red in color. If lucky, you can find Fistulina hepatica in the highlands. Their flesh is thick and tastes delicious.
Jamur Lingzhi complex (Ganoderma sp)
Ganoderma is a genus that is well-known as a medicinal mushroom. In Indonesia, there are several Ganoderma species that until now have not been fully identified. They can grow all year round. It grows on dead wood or as a parasite on living trees. Generally, people drink the Ganoderma tea as herbal medicine. Unfortunately, nowadays there are not many detailed publications on the species level of Ganoderma in Indonesia.
Guepenia sp belongs to the jelly mushroom. Their color is bright orange. Based on personal opinion, their appearance is similar to Dacryopinax but larger in size and color is brighter. Their fruit body is also thicker. Guepenia sp grows easily on the wood which is protected from the direct sunlight.
Jamur Pelawan (Heimioporus sp)
Some facts about Jamur Pelawan (Heimioporus sp). Firstly, they are one of the most expensive edible wild mushrooms in Indonesia. Secondly, they are often found in Bangka and Belitong islands. Thirdly, their price is fantastic for mushrooms price in Indonesia. 1 kg can reach 1 million rupiahs. Fourthly, Pelawan is a mycorrhizal fungus. They grow symbiotically with the Pelawan tree (Tristaniopsis sp)
One of the most attractive color for Indonesian wild edible mushrooms is Hygrocybe sp. Their upper caps and stipes colour is bright red, and the lower cap color is slightly yellowish. In the right conditions, they will grow in clusters. Looks flashy at the forest base. In Central Kalimantan, their local name is Kulat Siung. They usually grow in organic materials on the forest floor.
Jamur Ayam (Laetiporus sp)
According to some mushroom hunters at West Java, Laetiporus sp mushrooms are easier to find at the end of the rainy season and the conditions are windy. But, in Central Kalimantan, Laetiporus sp is also growing in the lowlands during the rainy season. They are famous as a chicken mushrooms. Maybe because the texture and the taste are similar to chicken meat.
Jamur Lot (Lentinus sp)
Lentinus sp is one of the wild edible mushrooms which easy to find. The right phase to harvest them is when they are still in the baby stage. When it is older, the texture will be tough. This is one of the reasons in Indonesia, their name is Jamur Lot (tough – English). But actually, when you find them in the late stage, you can still collect them and make them as a broth.
Lion’s mane (Hericium sp)
Hericium sp has a unique shape. Their shape is like a lion’s mane. They have white in color. When it’s in the young stage, the texture is soft. But, it will turn a little tough when it’s an older phase. Hericium sp, are generally growing on the deadwood that is still upright. Especially in the highlands.
Jamur Susu (Macrocybe sp)
Macrocybe sp is a rare wild edible mushroom in Indonesia. The size of Macrocybe is one of the large mushrooms in Indonesia. Their cap diameter can reach a size of 20cm. They have thick stipe and pileus.
Oudemansiela sp is one of the edible wild mushrooms that is rarely found by mushroom hunters in Indonesia. One of the reasons may be because they are not common as a food. You can find Odemansiela sp in lowland forests. Grows in decayed wood on the forest floor. The taste is bland, while the stem is a bit tough but crunchy.
Kulat Elong (Panus rudis)
Panus strigellus is a wild edible mushroom with a unique shape. Their cap tends to curve downward in the middle part. The cap color is brown, while the bottom tends to be brown whitish. They have large caps. The texture of the pileus is soft, while the stem is a bit tough.
Jamur Tudung Pengantin (Phallus sp)
Tudung Pengantin mushroom has a unique appearance. Grows in soil with white stipe and brown pileus. What’s interesting about this fungus is the presence of a white or yellowish net. The net is emanating from the lower part of their caps and it looks protecting their stipe. Their stipe is the edible part. The stipes basic aroma is like the smell of cake batter which going to be stale. Their texture is like foam and the taste is pretty good.
Picnoporus sanguineus is easy to identify. It is because of their bright orange color. Grows on the wood. They can grow all year round. They are also more resistant to direct sunlight. Publications and accessibility information are not widely available. But among mushroom hunters, they use it as tea. Picnoporus sanguineus contains beneficial metabolites with medicinal properties.
Piptoporus sp has a unique shape. Tend to be round in shape. Their upper part which is attached to the wood has a brown color. And the bottom part is white. Their texture is dense with white flesh. When eaten raw, the taste is sweet. The taste is similar to coconut embryos. They grow in a group on the wood. Commonly found in medium to high land.
Jamur Tiram/Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus sp)
There are several species of wild Jamur Tiram in Indonesia. Wild Jamur Tiram is the easiest mushroom to find in Indonesia. One of them has a very delicious taste. Personally, the wild brown Jamur Tiram is my favorite. Wild Jamur Tiram has a very wide distribution. Generally, they are growing in clusters on the wood. From several mushroom hunter reports, wild Pleurotus often grow on the Talok wood (Muntingia calabura).
Jamur Gerigit (Schizophyllum sp)
Became one of my favorite mushrooms when I was a child. Jamur Gerigit is a tough species. They can still grow in hot conditions with direct exposure to sunlight. However, the optimal conditions for them are shaded and humid conditions. They are very easy to grow during the rainy season. Small in size, but very tasty. Fortunately, they grow in many clusters along the surface of the wood.
Jamur So (Scleroderma spp.)
Scleroderma spp is popular as Jamur So in Indonesia. They are usually grown in the backyard where there are many So/Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) trees. Their shape is round with yellowish-white color. They will be clearly visible on the ground. The right phase to harvest them is when the inside color of the fruit body is white.
Jamur Salju/Jamur kuping putih (Tremella fuciformis)
One of the most delicious wild edible mushrooms in Indonesia. Their shape is visually similar to seaweed. White, jelly and branched. In some areas, Tremella fuciformis is called Jamur Salju. Actually, they are parasitic mushrooms. They only grow on the Hypomyces mushroom. They grow in small clusters, but it is difficult to find them in large numbers. And it really depends on the Hypomyces population.
Jamur mentega (Tremella mesenterica)
One of parasitic to other mushrooms. Just similar to Tremella fuciformis. But, their color is yellowish bright. This jelly mushroom is easy to grow in high humidity. They prefer shady places at the bottom of the forest. Generally easier to find them in the midlands and the highlands.
Jamur Barat (Termitomyces eurrhizus)
Jamur Barat is one of the most popular wild edible mushrooms in Indonesia. They generally grow during the peak of the rainy season. It will be easier to find in unused areas or. Their tastes are so delicious. The texture of their pileus is soft but the stipe is a little tough.
Jamur trucuk (Termitomyces microcarpus)
Jamur Trucuk is one of the termite mushrooms. They have a small size but grow in large groups. Their pileus and stipe color is white. Like other termite mushrooms, Jamur Trucuk is generally easy to find during the rainy season. They are also one of the famous wild edible mushrooms in Indonesia.
Jamur Mata Kerbau (Trichaleurina cf. javanica)
The common local name for this species is Jamur Mata Kerbau. Their fruiting body tends to be round. The inside part is soft like jelly. The soft part has no aroma. And the taste is bland with slightly chewy.
Jamur merang (Volvariella volvaceae)
Jamur Merang is one of the common wild edible mushrooms in Indonesia. One of the characteristics of this mushroom is the presence of Volva at the base of their stipe. Often found under the clumps of banana trees or in oil palm woods. The size can be very large, depending on the conditions of the growing media and the microclimate.
To determine the edibility of Mushrooms is not easy. A bit tricky. Moreover, information about the characterization of wild edible mushrooms in Indonesia is still limited. All information above is based on personal experience as a food foraging practitioner, asking experts, and some discussion in the Indonesian mushroom hunter group. So, please be careful to use the information, ensure during mushrooms identification, and take your own risk.
Thank you to all contributors: Photographers, all members of the Indonesian mushroom hunter group, and mushrooms experts who give advice. We are open to any input and corrections.
always love to learn from nature. Passionate on studying plants in some aspects: the DNA, Identification, propagation, and their uses