There are many tropical rainforest orchids in the world. From the report, there are 43.000 species and thousands of new species every year put on the list. Indonesia has at least 5,000 species of native orchids (Anggrek), with 986 species in Java, 971 species in Sumatra, 113 species in Maluku, and the rest spread across several other islands. From the condition of the forests in Kalimantan and Sulawesi, it seems that there will still be more new species to be found in the future.
Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 1999 concerning Preservation of Plant and Animal Species, the President of the Republic of Indonesia stated that there are 29 types of orchids which are rare and protected species. We can find orchids all over the world. They can grow and adapt to various types of habitats. Although, most species of orchids are in tropical rainforests. But actually, several types of orchids have also been able to grow in the area around the North Pole.
Orchids are one of the most popular ornamental plants. almost everyone knows orchids. Various events using orchids as ornaments. This is a testament to the fame of orchids. From weddings, religious events, to flower arrangements and room decorations. Orchids are an option because of their contrasting and diverse colors and attractive shapes.
29 Endangered Tropical Rainforest Orchids Species In Indonesia
Here is the list of 29 Tropical Rainforest Orchids mention in the Indonesian government regulation as endangered and protected orchids in Indonesia:
1. Anggrek Kebutan (Ascocentrum miniatum)
What makes this species special is its small flower size and attractive color. This species has a bright orange flower color. In one stalk there are several flowers. Besides attractive shape and color, this species also has a nice fragrant. Although in general, we can find this orchid in Java, the distribution includes Thailand, Malaysia, and Sumatra. In general, this orchid will grow optimally in moist forests with an altitude of 0-1200 above sea levels.
2. Anggrek Hitam (Coelogyne pandurate)
This species is an endemic plant of East Kalimantan. However, the most unique thing about this black orchid is actually the color of the black petals. And in fact, this is the only one in the world. The color of the petals is what makes it called the black orchid. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to find this orchid in its natural habitat. It happens because their habitat is damage and the many uses of orchids as a precious commodity. This species becomes one of the famous among other tropical rainforest orchids in the world
3. Anggrek Koribas (Corybas fornicates)
In fact, it is very difficult to find information about this species. Unfortunately, there are very few publications on the identification and research of this orchid. Due to the population is almost extinct, the government also prohibits the trading of these species.
4. Anggrek Hartinah (Cymbidium hartinahianum)
In fact, the name of this orchid comes from the name of the mother of the second Indonesian president. This is to honor his love for orchids. During her life, Mrs. Siti Hartinah popularized orchids in Indonesia. This type is a type of ground orchid and is endemic to North Sumatra. furthermore, this species was found in 1976 on the slopes of the mountains at an altitude of 1,700 masl. Around Samosir North Sumatra.
5. Anggrek Karawai (Dendrobium ostrinoglosum)
As an epiphyte, Dendrobium ostrinoglossum (Karawai Orchid) will grow optimally in humid conditions, also requires lots of light. The original habitat of this species is the river flow and lowland swamp forests in Papua. However, what makes this orchid attractive is the diversity of flower colors. Starting from red, white, blue, and yellow in one bunch.
6. Anggrek Albert (Dendrobium antennatum)
The name of this species is related to its antelope horn-like shape. Besides being able to flower all year round, the flower is long-lasting and has a soft aroma. Its orchids are found in the lowlands around the coast, mangrove forests, grasslands, and lowland forests in Papua. This orchid is also found in Papua New Guinea and several islands in the Pacific.
7. Anggrek Stuberi (Dendrobium lasianthera)
Similarly, with the other Dendrobium, its species is an epiphytic plant on large trees in tropical rainforests. Its habitat is in humid lowland forests, swamps, and along rivers in Papua. This orchid in English is named Wooly Pollina Dendrobium. Whereas Indonesia it has a local name as the Stuberi / Strawberry / Strawberry orchids.
8. Anggrek Jamrud (Dendrobium macrophyllum)
Jamrud or emerald in English is the local name for the orchid. It because the flower color is green. Anggrek. Even though they have a wide distribution in Indonesia and a wide range of adaptations, but we can hardly find them in nature. Most of the plants now only available in the orchid stores or collectors.
9. Anggrek Karawai (Dendrobium ostrinoglossum)
It still seems confusing with local naming. Several sources that are used as a reference for this article, named this orchid with the name “Anggrek Karawai ” as well. Dendrobium ostrinoglossum is an epiphytic plant that grows on trees in lowland rainforests. Especially in forests close to rivers and swamps in Papua.
10. Anggrek Larat (Dendrobium phalaenopsis)
Larat orchid (Dendrobium phalaenopsis) becomes an identity for Maluku province. Why Larat Orchid is interesting? Besides the flower is beautiful, this species is only in Larat, an island in the middle of the Arafura Sea, southern Maluku Province. Larat Orchid which in English is called Cooktown Orchid. Naturally, the habitat is growing on trees and coral reefs at an altitude between 0 – 150 m above sea levels, especially with direct sunlight exposure. Anggrek Larat is also on the list of tropical rainforest orchids which has limited distribution.
11. Anggrek Raksasa Papua (Grammatophyllum papuanum)
Grammatophyllum papuanum has the local names of Anggrek Raksana Papua, Anggrek Ratu, Anggrek Harimau, also Anggrek Macan. The name of the tiger orchid may be due to its flower pattern that resembles the skin of a tiger. Grammatophyllum actually comes from the Greek language. Gramma means the sign and Phyllon which means leaf.
The habitat of this orchid is a tropical rainforest in Papua.
12. Anggrek Tebu (Grammatophyllum speciosum)
Anggrek Tebu is the biggest tropical rainforest orchids in the world. The orchids cluster weight can be more than 1 ton and the plant can reach 3 meters in length. Because of the rarity, many scientists did experiments on the propagation. Some laboratories publish that they can propagate the orchid by using the tissue culture method.
13. Anggrek Mutiara/Ki Aksara (Macodes petola)
Unlike other orchids, the beauty of this orchid can be seen from the leaf veins, not the flowers. This species was first identified in 1840. Apart from Indonesia, the distribution of this species is mainly in Southeast Asia. However, in Indonesia, this orchid has only been found in Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Java. Again, in contrast to other orchids, this species is the only tropical rainforest orchid known for its leaf pattern, not the floral part.
14. Anggrek Kasut Kumis (Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum)
This orchid is a type of ground orchid with a height between 30-45 cm. This orchid species has a shape like Nepenthes. Currently, this species is becoming increasingly rare because its natural habitat has been damaged by land clearing and the eruption of Mount Merapi. Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra is one of the natural habitats for this orchid species.
15. Anggrek Kasut Berbulu (Paphiopedilum glaucophyllum)
Based on the literature, the distribution of this species is actually in the Southeast Asia region. But in Indonesia, this orchid is known as an endemic plant of Mount Semeru. The highest mountain on the island of Java in the province of East Java. In accordance with its unique name, the slipper orchid or hairy sandal has a labellum on its flower structure that at first glance looks like a slipper, sandal, or shoe. This orchid in English is called Tropical Lady’s-Slipper.
16. Anggrek Kasut Pita (Paphiopedilum praestans)
One of the tropical rainforest orchids that is endangered and currently on the protected list. Its habitat is the island of Papua. This species not only has a beautiful shape, but also an attractive appearance. The flowers are brown. Because it has an elongated and bent part similar to a ribbon, in Indonesia this orchid is known as the Kasut Pita Orchid.
17. Anggrek Bulan Bintang (Paraphalaenopsis denevei)
The bulan bintang Orchid (Paraphalaenopsis denevei) is one of the Paraphalaenopsis genera, which only consists of 4 species. This orchid is native to Kalimantan. Sympodial orchid type has leaves like the leaves of anggrek bulan (phalaenopsis), but smaller. It grows as epiphytes in large trees near humid rivers in the lowland rainforest of Kalimantan.
18. Anggrek Bulan Kalimantan Tengah (Paraphalaenopsis laycockii)
This species is a native orchid of Kalimantan. Same genera with Paraphalaenopsis denevei. Until now, Paraphalaenopsis laycockii can be found in Central Kalimantan. It has the same character and habitat as the Bornean orchids in general. Its habitat is growing attached (epiphytic) to large trees near rivers that grow in the rainforest of Kalimantan.
19. Anggrek Bulan Kalimantan Barat (Paraphalaenopsis serpentilingua)
Paraphalaenopsis serpentilingua has dark green round leaves. The shape of the leaves is elongated with a sharp tip like a pencil. While the trunk is short and dark green to purplish-green. The flowers are predominantly white with a combination of other contrasting colors in the middle. In addition, they grow epiphytically in the lowland rain forest in West Kalimantan. The species of Paraphalaenopsis genera is famous as endangered tropical rainforest orchids.
20. Anggrek Bulan Ambon (Phalaenopsis amboinensis)
This species was first identified by Johannes Jacobus Smith, a Dutch botanist, in 1911. Although this species is known to have originated from Maluku, it has also been found in Sulawesi and Papua. Its habitat is a lowland rain forest. The beauty and rarity of the flowers make this species widely exploited. Currently, it is very difficult to find this species in its natural habitat.
21. Anggrek Bulan Raksasa (Phalaenopsis gigantea)
Identified by Niewenhuis in the late 19th century, and then J.J. Smith. Phalaenopsis gigantea including epiphytic orchids. The shape of the trunk is short and thick. Its habitat is rainforests in Kalimantan. Grows attached to the trunk of a large tree. Although many in the lowlands are shady and humid, this species can grow up to 1000 meters above sea level. But unfortunately, currently, this tropical rainforest orchid is increasingly difficult to find in its natural habitat.
22. Anggrek Bulan Sumatera (Phalaenopsis sumatrana)
Anggrek Bulan Sumatra (Phalaenopsis sumatrana), is an epiphytic or lithophyte orchid that grows monopodial. Although it was first discovered by Korthals in South Sumatra, in 1839. However, the distribution of this species includes Sumatra, Malaysia, and Thailand. the basic color of the flowers is white to white to brass with a horizontal line pattern variation of light brown or red, which circles following the shape of the flower
23. Anggrek Kelip (Phalaenopsis violacea)
Phalaenopsis violacea is a native species of Indonesia. Its habitat is rainforests in Sumatra, Mentawai, Simeulue and Kalimantan. Therefore, The interesting about this tropical rainforest orchids is the fragrance. For instance, you can smell this flower up to several meters. This species is an epiphytic plant. And as additional information, this species grows in humid areas, in the shade of large trees in lowland forests.
24. Anggrek Jingga (Renanthera matutina)
The distribution of this species is only in the Southeast Asia region. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, this orchid can be found in Kalimantan, Sumatra, and Java. It grows epiphytic on tall trees in lowland to mountainous rain forests. What is interesting about this species is the bright color of the flowers and a large number of flowers in one bunch.
25. Anggrek Sendok (Spathoglottis zurea)
Spathoglottis zurea is an evergreen terrestrial orchid. In fact, Pseudobulbs that lie below ground level are the points where the stem appears to produce flowers. Besides being rare species, this orchid also become one of the most beautiful orchids in the world. The habitat of this orchid is in the rainforests of Borneo. But nowadays, it is quite difficult to see this orchid in its natural habitat.
26. Aggrek Vanda Mungil Minahasa (Vanda celebica)
Vanda celebica orchid is one of the tropical rainforest orchids from Sulawesi. The habitat of this epiphytic orchid is in forest trees that are located in the middle plains rain forest in Sulawesi. This orchid has been declared extinct since 1910. In fact, this orchid is still existed in the conservation center and in several collectors.
27. Anggrek Pensil (Papillionanthe hookerina)
Massive exploitation during the 90’s causing the population of Anggrek Pensil in their natural habitat to decrease significantly. Anggrek Pensil is native plant from Southern Sumatra, in the Bukit Barisan mountains. Its species will grow optimum by symbiotic with Bakung flower (Crinum asiaticum).
28. Anggrek Vanda Mini (Vanda pumila)
Vanda pumila is a small orchid species. Its distribution is wide in Asia, starting from China, Southeast Asia, to South Asia. The habitat of these orchids is generally rainforest at an altitude of 700 – 1400 masl. The flowers are white or cream in color. After blooming, the flowers are durable and fragrant. Despite their wide distribution, these orchids are very difficult to find in their natural habitat.
29. Vanda Sumatera (Vanda sumatrana)
Vanda sumatrana is the last species in the list of endangered Indonesian tropical rainforest orchids. It species is an epiphytic orchid. This orchid is a native species from Sumatra. Specifically, we can find the habitat of these orchids around Lake Toba. although now it is very difficult to see it directly in nature. Their habitat is clinging to large trees that are on the cliffs of the rainforest in the western part of the island of Sumatra. From several reports, this orchid can live from 300-1000 masl. The flower is brown with yellow spots.
How To Take Care Tropical Rainforest Orchid Plants indoors
Tropical rainforest orchids, besides require high humidity, also do not like direct sunlight. Tropical rainforest orchids only require light intensity ranging from 50-70%. With these growing conditions, the orchid house should be tight enough to reach high humidity, but there should be shading to reduce the intensity of sunlight.
Porous growing media
When you decide to maintain tropical rainforest orchids, don’t forget to choose the right growing medium. One tip is to place small stones at the bottom of the pot to keep the water from stagnating. Generally, medium orchids are dry pieces of fern wood.
Regular Watering And Fertilizing
Tropical rainforest orchids have a humid and always wet habitat in Indonesian rainforests. Where it grows is also a fertile organic material. So when caring for tropical rainforest orchids, you only need to mimic the growing conditions in their natural habitat. Once there is done with setting the right humidity and garden media. All you have to do is maintain a regular watering and nutrition routine.
That is the list of 29 tropical rainforest orchids in Indonesia that are protected under Government Regulation Number 7 of 1999 concerning the preservation of plant and animal species. By the Indonesian institute of sciences, this regulation still needs to be evaluated for several species. Especially the correction in terms of taxonomy.